Answer: The Celtic cross is a symbol used today in many contexts, both religious and secular. The Celtic cross is like a traditional cross but with a ring around the intersection of the stem and arms. The whole cross is often decorated with ornate Gaelic patterns. Sometimes the Celtic cross is set on a tall base to resemble more closely the traditional Christian cross, and at other times the symbol stands alone. The Celtic cross is sometimes nothing more than a simple “stick” drawing on a gravestone or at a religious site; other times it is sculpted and quite ornate. The Celtic cross is also called the “sun cross” by some who interpret the ring to represent the sun. Celtic crosses are decorated with Insular art, characterized by elaborately interlacing bands. This style of art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is closely associated with Celtic Christianity and Irish monasticism. The fabulously ornate Book of Kells, an illustrated copy of the four Gospels, contains wonderful examples of Insular art, and the same type of patterns visible in the Book of Kells can also be seen on the Celtic cross. Many Celtic crosses also depict scenes from the Bible. Irish legend says that the Celtic cross was first introduced by Saint Patrick, who was attempting to convert the pagan Irish to Christianity. In medieval times, the Celtic cross symbol was used as a public monument—just as present-day Christians often place a cross atop a church—and, if the Celtic cross had engravings of Bible scenes, as a teaching tool. When these crosses marked a religious holy site, they usually had a longer stem and are called Irish high crosses. Today, the Celtic cross is used most often on gravestones and in funerary monuments, but it has also become a symbol of national pride. Those who identify with the Celtic tradition may wear the Celtic cross design on clothing, in jewelry, or as tattoos. Sports teams and other organizations have also been known to use the Celtic cross as a way to show their Irish heritage.
It is genetically influenced and is associated with similar personality characteristics, patterns of comorbidity, and risks of chronicity and/or recurrence as non-bereavement-related major depressive episodes. Finally, the depressive symptoms associated with bereavement-related depression respond to the same psychosocial and medication treatments as non-bereavement-related depression. In the criteria for major depressive disorder, a detailed footnote has replaced the more simplistic DSM-IV exclusion to aid clinicians in making the critical distinction between the symptoms characteristic of bereavement and those of a major depressive episode. Suicidality represents a critical concern in psychiatry. Thus, the clinician is given guidance on assessment of suicidal thinking, plans, and the presence of other risk factors in order to make a determination of the prominence of suicide prevention in treatment planning for a given individual. A new specifier to indicate the presence of mixed symptoms has been added across both the bipolar and the depressive disorders, allowing for the possibility of manic features in individuals with a diagnosis of unipolar depression. A substantial body of research conducted over the last two decades points to the importance of anxiety as relevant to prognosis and treatment decision making. The “with anxious distress” specifier gives the clinician an opportunity to rate the severity of anxious distress in all individuals with bipolar or depressive disorders.
Understanding these differences may help you to be more sensitive to the special beliefs and practices of multicultural target groups when planning a program. Several factors cause illness. A hot-cold imbalance, or a different time taking of food. Illness can occur ifsome of the foods are eaten in improper combinations or amounts or at improper time. In the traditional belief system, mental illnesses are caused by a lack of harmony of emotions or, sometimes, by evil spirits. Some Asian and Buddhist believe that problems in this life are most likely related to transgressions committed in a past life and our previous life and our future life are as much a part of the life cycle. Several economic barriers, such as unemployment, underemployment, homelessness, lack of health insurance poverty prevent people from entering the health care system. Poverty is the most critical factor. Poor health, crippling diseases, drug and alcohol abuse, poor education; and inferior are contributing social causes of poverty. It is important for the nurse to be aware clients needs and financial resources available in the local community.
It is varies for different cultures groups. Personal space involves a person’s set of behaviors and attitudes toward the space around himself. The nurse should try, to respect the client’s personal space as much as possible, especially when performing nursing procedures. The nurse should also welcome visiting members of the family and extended family. This can remind the client of home, lessening the effects of isolation and shock from hospitalization. Belief about birth &death. Belief about diet and food practices. The nurse should begin the assessment by attempting to determine the client’s cultural heritage and language skills. The client should be asked if any of his health beliefs relate to the cause of the illness or to the problem. The nurse should then determine what, if any, home remedies the person is taking to treat the symptoms. Nurses should evaluate their attitudes toward ethnic nursing care. Nurses have a responsibility to understand the influence of culture, race ðnicity on the development of social emotional relationship child rearing practices &attitude toward health. Religious practices greatly influences health promotion belief in families.
Many ethnic and cultural groups in country retain the cultural heritage of their original culture. How culture influences behaviors, attitudes, and values depends on many factors and thus is not the same for different members of a cultural group. The nurse should have an understanding of the general characteristics of the major ethnic groups, but should always individualize care rather than generalize about all clients in these groups. Before assessing the cultural background of a client, nurses should assess how they are influenced by their own culture. The nursing diagnosis for clients should include potential problems in their interaction with the health care system and problems involving the effects of culture. The planning and implementation of nursing interventions should be adapted as much as possible to the client’s cultural background. Evaluation should include the nurse’s self-evaluation of attitudes and emotions toward providing nursing care to clients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The client’s educational level and language skills should be considered when planning teaching activities.