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research question by replacing the words “Is there” with the words “There is,” and also replacing the question mark with a period

Subject: General Questions    / General General Questions

HMGT 400

Team Assignment #1

Start with the cover page (1 page, include name of all group members, group #, running head, abstract).

Please look at the example: http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf

Title

All topics approved, so you have your topic and dataset.

1. Introduction

Introduce the problem or topic being investigated. Include relevant background information that: indicates why this is an issue or topic worth researching; highlights how others have researched this topic or issue (whether quantitatively or qualitatively), and specifies how others have operationalized this concept and measured this phenomena quantitatively (This is the place for literature review).

2. Literature Review

The group should locate at 3-5 articles that present quantitative research on the topic selected.

At the end of this section, the Research Question or Research Hypothesis should be formally stated (Please do not use articles published before 2000).

3. What is the group’s Research Question or Research Hypothesis?

Some points for RQ and Hypothesis

There are basically two kinds of research questions: testable and non-testable. Neither is better than the other, and both have a place in applied research.

Examples of non-testable questions are:

How do managers feel about the reorganization?

What do residents feel are the most important problems facing the community?

Respondents’ answers to these questions could be summarized in descriptive tables and the results might be extremely valuable to administrators and planners. Business and social science researchers often ask non-testable research questions. The shortcoming with these types of questions is that they do not provide objective cut-off points for decision-makers.

In order to overcome this problem, researchers often seek to answer one or more testable research questions. Nearly all testable research questions begin with one of the following two phrases:

Is there a significant difference between …?

Is there a significant relationship between …?

For example:

Is there a significant relationship between the age of managers

and their attitudes towards the reorganization?

Is there a significant difference between white and minority residents

with respect to what they feel are the most important problems

facing the community?

A research hypothesis is a testable statement of opinion. It is created from the research question by replacing the words “Is there” with the words “There is,” and also replacing the question mark with a period. The hypotheses for the two sample research questions would be:

There is a significant relationship between the age of managers

and their attitudes towards the reorganization.

There is a significant difference between white and minority residents

with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community.

It is not possible to test a hypothesis directly. Instead, you must turn the hypothesis into a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is created from the hypothesis by adding the words “no” or “not” to the statement. For example, the null hypotheses for the two examples would be:

There is no significant relationship between the age of managers

and their attitudes towards the reorganization.

There is no significant difference between white and minority residents

with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community.

All statistical testing is done on the null hypothesis…never the hypothesis. The result of a statistical test will enable you to either: 1) reject the null hypothesis, or 2) fail to reject the null hypothesis. Never use the words “accept the null hypothesis.”

Source: https://statpac.com/manual/index.htm?turl=formulatinghypothesesfromresearchquestions.htm

4. Method

Discuss the Research Methodology (in general). Describe the variable or variables that are being analyzed. Identify the statistical test you will select to analyze these data and explain why you chose this test. Summarize your statistical alternative hypothesis. This section includes the following sub-sections:

4-1. Describe the Dataset

Example

The primary source of data will be HOPSITAL COMPRE MEDICARE DATA (Add citation). This dataset provides information on hospital characteristics, such as: Number of staffed beds, ownership, system membership, staffing by nurses and non clinical staff, teaching status, percentage of discharge for Medicare and Medicaid patients, and information regarding the availability of specialty and high-tech services, as well as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) use (Describe dataset in 2-3 lines, Google the dataset and find the related website to find more information about the data).

Also describe the sample size; for example, “we are using Medicare data-2013, this data includes 3000 obs. for all of the hospitals in the US.”

4-2. Describe Variables

Next, review the database you selected and select a variable or variables that are a “best-fit.” That is, choose a variable that quantitatively measures the concept or concepts articulated in your research question or hypothesis.

Return to your previously stated Research Question or Hypothesis and evaluate and report variables you have selected. (See Table 1 as an example).

Table 1. List of variables used for the analysis

Variable

Definition

Description

of code

Source

Year

Total Hospital Beds

Total facility beds set up and staffed

at the end of reporting period

Numeric

Medicare Data

2013

….

…..

Source: AHA, 2013

4-3. Describe the Research Method for Analysis

First, describe the research method as a general (e.g., this is a quantitative method and then explain about this method in about one paragraph. If you have this part in the introduction, you do not need to add here).

Then, explain the statistical method you plan to use for your analysis (Refer to content in week 3 on Biostatistics for information on various statistical methods you can choose from), e.g.:

Example:

Hypothesis: AZ hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rates for PN compared to CA.

Research Method: To determine whether Arizona hospitals are more likely to have lower readmission rate than California, we will use a t-test, to determine whether differences across hospital types are statistically significant (You can change the test depends on your analysis).

4-4. Describe statistical package

Finally, add one paragraph (2-3 lines) for the statistical package, e.g., Excel or Rstudio.

5. Results

Before doing any analysis, look at the distribution of selected variables. If there are any outliers, think about that (you may want to eliminate that). Most of you are using Rstudio, so look at the density curve for your variable to see the outliers , If you have any difficulties working with Rstudio, please send me an email including the variables in the Excel file and I will send you the codes to run Rstudio.

Add at least one paragraph and explain:

? Why you needed to see the distribution of data before any analysis (e.g., check for outliers, finding the best fit test; for example, if the data had not normal distribution, you can’t use the parametric test, etc., so just add 1 or 2 sentences).

? Did you eliminate outliers? (Please write 1 or 2 sentence, if applicable).

? How many observations do you have in your database and how many for selected variables, report % of missing, if there are any missing observations.

? When you are finished with this, go for next steps:

Present the results of your statistical analysis; include any relevant statistical information (summary tables, including N, mean, std. dev.).

For this part you could have at least 1-2 tables and 1-2 figures (depending on your variables bar-chart, pi-chart, or scatter-plot)

When you have tables and plots ready, think about your finding and state the statistical conclusion, before that make sure to run a statistical test (depends on # of groups you may like to use ttest or chi-sq or Anova) Do the results present evidence in favor or the null hypothesis or evidence that contradicts the null hypothesis?

6. Conclusion and Discussion

? Review your research questions or hypothesis. How has your analysis informed this question or hypothesis? Present your conclusion(s) from the results (presented above) and discuss the meaning of this conclusion(s) considering the research question or hypothesis presented in your introduction.

? Discuss the results of your statistical analysis considering the background information presented in the introduction you need to find at least one paper to support your findings.

? At the end of this section, add one or two sentences and discuss the limitations associated with this analysis and any other statements you think are important in understanding the results of this analysis.

List of References

Include a reference page listing the bibliographic information for all sources cited in this report. This information should be consistent with requirements specified in the American Psychological Association (APA) format and style


 

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