need 2 different replies to these postings — each need to be approx 250 words in reference to ethics in nursing research,………. Ethics in research has historically been shaped by advances in medicine and nursing practice, but it has also been shaped by outrage of abuses of human subjects in the name of reseach. All to aware of atrocities commited by Nazi doctors on prisoners during WW2, brought to light during Nuremberg trial, researchers established the Nuremberg Code in 1948 stating that “the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential” ( Mandal, 2011, p. 2). Interesting as it may be to find fault in Nazi research practice, these same type of practices have occurred in the US. One example of abuse by researchers is seen in the Tuskegee syphilis study where black, uneducated men were infected and despite a treatment being available researchers chose not to provide it so that they could study the long term effects of the disease. Another is example is the use of prison inmates to test a influenza vaccine by coercing inmates to participate by providing reductions in their prison sentence. Immanuel Kant, a philosopher, states in his Catagorical Imperative to “act in such a way that you treat humanity…never as a means to an end, but always at the same time as an end” (Day, 2007, p. 180). Basically Kant means do not use people. When research depends on humans in a study the “participants must be able to make their own choices and manage concerns without coercion” (Doody, 2016, p. 3). Therefore if researches stuck to following ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice in accordance to Kant’s Catagorical Imperative then research subjects would be protected from harm. Day, L. (2007) Foundations of clinical ethics: Disengaged rationalism and internal goods. American Journal of Critical Care 16(2) 179-183
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