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Discuss the validity and future implications of the research. 

BIO 119 – Biology for Health Professionals


Journal Assignment


The assignment is worth 60 points (39 drafts/21 final)




This is an INDIVIDUAL assignment!




The objective of this assignment is to provide you with experience in evaluating scientific research papers.  The abilities to understand and critically analyze the results of a scientific journal article are critical in the healthcare field.  For this assignment, you will evaluate how the scientific method has been applied in a peer-reviewed journal article.




You will complete this assignment in four sections (39 points) and then submit a final revised paper (21 points).  Due dates for all components are listed on your syllabus – do not forget!!  Every section is graded and details are explained below and in the rubric.




For this assignment, you are required to provide a summary of the scientific method as it was presented by the journal authors.  Refer to the following information when completing your paper.






·                     The paper shall be about 2-4 pages in length, double-spaced, and 12-font type.


·                     Include your name at the top right hand corner of the first page.


·                     Title:  The title should be centered at the top of the first page of your paper, single-spaced, in 12-font type.  Choose a title that concisely explains the topic of your paper.


·                     A title page is not required.




Grammar and spelling:
The paper shall be written with proper grammar and free of spelling errors.  Use spell check, and carefully read your paper prior to turning it in.  ½ point will be deducted for each spelling or grammatical error.




Evaluation of Scientific Method and Research:


Identify and describe the following components of the scientific method in the body of your paper:




Section 1:  Definitions and Observations (8 points)


·         Definition of Terms and Concepts:  Define any important terms and concepts so that the reader understands the topic of the journal article.  You will likely need to reference additional sources of information.Make sure you properly cite the source(s) of your information.


·         Observations and Previous Studies:  Describe the observations that led the authors to conduct this study.  This information can usually be found in the background information and discussion sections of the article.  Describe at least one previous study that led the authors to investigate the current topic.


·         Question:  In your own words, state the question that the authors are trying to answer in their experiment.  The question should be specific enough that it leads to the framing of a good hypothesis.  This should be written in the form of a question.




Section 2Hypothesis and Experimental Design (10 points)


·         Hypothesis:  State the hypothesis provided by the authors of the article.  Make sure that you identify the statement as the hypothesis (i.e., “The hypothesis is…”).  The hypothesis should be written in your own words.  It should be specific and written in the proper format.


·         Experiment:  Describe the experiment as it is outlined in the journal article.  The following components must be included:


·         Independent variable:  State the independent variable.


·         Dependent variable:  State the dependent variable.


·         Controlled (constant) variables:  List the controlled variables used by the authors during the experiment.


·         Control and experimental groups:  Identify the control and experimental groups.


·         Description of experiment and data collection:  Describe the steps of the experiment.  Include a description of how data and results were collected.You will need to cite the journal article as the source for the details.


Section 3:  Summary and Interpretation of Results(12 points)
This section requires that you read the article, summarize the results with specific details from graphics in the paper, and explain the results of the study.  This section will be 1 – 3 paragraphs long, depending on the paper.  This section must contain the following:


·         Summary of results:  Describe the results of the authors’ experiment for each dependent variable.  Be specific and include examples of the qualitative and/or quantitative results.  Compare and contrast the results of the control and experimental groups.


·         Reference to graphic:  Choose one results table, graph, or diagram from the paper and refer to it during your summary of results.  The graphic must describe results, NOT the experimental design nor the demographics of the subjects.


·         Explain what information is being presented in the graphic.  This information is often found in the title of the graphic and/or the caption.


·         Describe the results presented in the graphic.  Give SPECIFIC examples of quantitative and/or qualitative data presented in the graphic.  Cite your journal article as the source of this data.


·         Explain what the results presented in the graphic mean in detail.


·         Explanation of results:  Explain the results as if you were explaining them to a patient or family member. Interpret and summarize them in lay person’s language.  What is the significance and health/medical application of this study? Write this as if you are actually explaining to the patient.


·         Analysis of hypothesis:  Discuss whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted.  Why or why not?




Section 4:  Discussion (9 points)


Discuss the validity and future implications of the research.  You should discuss at least two of the following points.  You must cite outside sources to support your statements.


·         Was the experiment designed and conducted according to proper scientific method?  Give specific examples of how it did or did not follow the scientific method.


·         Are the authors’ results supported by or in opposition to research conducted by other scientists?


·         What additional research or experimentation is needed?  What would you recommend to further investigate this topic?


·         What are the implications of this research (i.e., what is its use in the “real world?”)?  How does this research add to the basic field of study or to the disease process specifically?




Additional Resources:


Additional resources are required in this paper.  They may be helpful in understanding the observations (background) and analyzing the results of the experiments.  An additional source is required for both of your discussion points.  Additional resources must be cited in the paper and reference page.




Citations within paper (in-text or parenthetical citations):


You must provide proper citation of all references (including your article) throughout the paper.  In-text citations tell the reader where paraphrased or quoted information came from.

Paraphrasing is putting the ideas from a resource in your own words.  When paraphrasing, it is not sufficient to change only one word of a sentence!  See me if you are unclear on how to paraphrase.  If you copy word-for-word from a resource, you must put the quoted (word-for-word) material in quotation marks.  The majority of the paper should be in your own words or paraphrasing, not direct quotations from resources.

Follow APA style for in-text citations.  Refer to the APA Citation Guide and the following HCC webpage for more information on how to cite sources within the body of your paper:

Failure to appropriately cite resources within the body of your paper or to include quotation marks around any word-for-word quotations will be considered plagiarism.  Plagiarism may result in loss of points and possibly a zero for the assignment. provides a tutorial on how to create a reference page and how to cite sources within your paper.  You should complete this tutorial as part of your preparations for this assignment.  Additional APA citation information can be found at and at




Reference Page:


This reference page will include the citation for the source of the article and for all sources consulted.  Follow APA style for the citations.  Use the APA Citation Guide on Blackboard to complete your reference page and in-text citatio

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