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Defining a health Problem and Research Methods Using an Epidemiological Approach… 1 answer below »

Section 1
Examine a health problem of interest to you, and you will develop a brief paper (1–2 pages) outlining the significance of the health problem and describing it in terms of person, place, and time.
Write a 1- to 2-page paper that addresses the following:
Describe the population health problem in terms of person, place, and time.
From the primary research literature and Healthy People 2020, briefly explain the significance of this health problem.
Include your preliminary research question or hypothesis.
Answer to Section 1
Selecting a Population Health Problem
The selected problem will be obesity prevalence among adults aged 20 and over residing in the urban areas of the United States. This study will primarily investigate adult obesity for the year 2014.
The Population Health Problem
Overweight and obesity are defined as an excessive accumulation of fat that stands as a risk to wellbeing (WHO, 2018). It is measured by the body mass index (BMI) of a person’s weight calculated in kilograms divided by the square of his or her height in meters. A BMI more than 30 is considered obese while a BMI of 25 and above is overweight (WHO, 2018). It was considered a problem primarily in high-income countries formerly but now obesity is intensely on the rise in both low- income and middle-income countries, predominantly in the urban settings (WHO, 2018).
According to the CDC (2017), obesity prevalence among adults aged 20 years or more during 2011–2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults was less in the highest income group (31.2%) than the other groups (40.8%). Likewise, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 38.3% among women and 34.3% among men . The prevalence of obesity was 34.5% among non-Hispanic white adults, 48.1% among non-Hispanic black adults, 11.7% among non-Hispanic Asian adults, and 42.5% among Hispanic adults.
In the socio-economic status obesity prevalence decreased with increasing income in women (from 45.2% to 29.7%), but there was no variance in obesity prevalence between the lowest (31.5%) and highest (32.6%) income groups among men (CDC, 2017).
The Significance of Adult Obesity
Obesity carries major risk factors for many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer (Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). The health consequences of overweight and obesity are numerous manifesting in premature disability and health, in high costs of health care, productivity lost, and in social stigmatization. Studies confirmed that the risk of fatality rises with increasing weight in all age group particularly among adults aged 30 to 64 years. Chrostowska, Szyndler, Hoffmann, and Narkiewicz (2013) emphasize the impact and the relationship of obesity on cardiovascular health and link to stroke, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Study Question
What is the leading cause of obesity prevalence among adults (age 20 and over) population
residing in the urban areas in the United States.

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